Clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous Amiodarone in infants and children
Figa FH. Gow RM. Hamilton RM. Freedom RM.
American Journal of Cardiology. 74(6):573-7, 1994.
The effectiveness and safety of intravenous amiodarone in children are not well established. This study reviewed its use in 30 infants and children for life-threatening tachyarrhythmias: 18 patients (19 episodes) with supraventricular tachycardia, and 12 with ventricular tachycardia. Eighteen patients had structural heart defects with arrhythmias that occurred after surgery. The mean loading dose was 5 mg/kg infused over 1 hour, with a starting maintenance dose of 5 micrograms/kg/min. In 18 treatment episodes, amiodarone was used alone or in combination with digoxin. Thirteen patients received amiodarone combined with other antiarrhythmic agents. Intravenous amiodarone was effective or partially effective in 94% of patients, achieving a therapeutic effect in a median time of 1 day (range 1 hour to 5 days). The mean effective maintenance dose was 9.5 micrograms/kg/min (13.7 mg/kg/day), and median treatment duration was 5 days (range 1 to 30). Adverse effects occurred in 18 patients (58%), however none necessitated termination of amiodarone therapy. Potentially significant electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 5 patients during combination antiarrhythmic therapy with propafenone. Sinus bradycardia requiring temporary postoperative pacing occurred in 3 patients treated with amiodarone alone. Intravenous amiodarone used alone or in combination therapy is an effective treatment for resistant, life-threatening arrhythmias in infants and children. Combination drug therapy with propafenone must be used cautiously. Potential bradycardia pacing may be necessary during administration of amiodarone after surgery.
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